Model Behavior2

Curating Model Behavior

Eight Cornell University Student Projects Based on Unrealized Noguchi Concepts

In the Spring of 2020, architect and educator Naomi Frangos led a seminar at Cornell University’s College of Art, Architecture, and Planning (AAP) through an in-depth, cross-disciplinary analysis of unrealized public works by Isamu Noguchi. The eight student projects presented here document her students’ research and efforts to bring Noguchi’s proposals to life in digital renderings.

Image: Daniel Min, Intimacy and Inhabitation, 2020.
Research and renderings of Model for Project(s) for Lever Brothers Building, New York (unrealized), 1952, by Isamu Noguchi with Gordon Bunshaft.
Photographs from The Noguchi Museum Archives.

Model Behavior

By Dakin Hart

Isamu Noguchi’s influence on architects and designers seems so widely acknowledged and intuitively self-evident to those who have recognized or experienced it that rarely has anyone tried to articulate the means. The most commonly cited reason to visit The Noguchi Museum is almost certainly You just gotta go. No question, there is something in Noguchi’s point of view that resists technical analysis and deconstruction. He was a great believer in giving art the ambiguous means to resist death by explication. There are few things he liked less than visiting a museum with a curator determined to art-splain something to him.

Modeling Noguchi Beyond Categories

By Naomi Frangos

In his autobiography, A Sculptor’s World, Noguchi identifies himself primarily as a sculptor, but extends his view of what that means into architectural design. In the section “Into Living,” he admits: “It is clear that I often crave to bring sculpture into a more direct contact with the common experience of living,”2 and describes his perspective on different types of social space under the headings “Intervention, Architecture, Gardens and Playgrounds.” The integration he sought between art and life could only be achieved, he believed, within the creator. “True collaboration can only occur when the sculptor and the architect are the same person.”3 Noguchi had no architectural training, but his aptitude for envisioning public spaces was prodigious, ranging vastly in scalefrom the human body to urban plazas and outer spaceand in functionfrom memorials and monuments to theater design. As he moved between art forms and design fields, Noguchi used the term “category” to suggest that he found strength in artistic ideas that belonged to larger concerns over specialized roles. Noguchi’s “categories” are what we often refer to today as disciplines, which, requiring specific training and skills, tend to break down design practice into isolated ways of thinking.

Curating Model Behavior: Eight Cornell University Student Projects Based on Unrealized Noguchi Concepts

Editorial Note: The versions of the student texts presented here have been edited from those included in the students’ final project reports. Linked student projects are unedited and appear as they were originally submitted in fulfillment of the course requirements.


Table of Contents

Basil Harb, Emerging, Rise, Descent, 2020
Bennet Adamson, Defying Gravity, 2020
Brandon Nolasco, Emergence, 2020
Bushra Aumir, Static Motion, 2020
Christine Gao, Containment and Infinity, 2020
Daniel Min, Intimacy and Inhabitation, 2020
Erin Huang, Contoured Momentum, 2020
Panuwich Wongpaitoonpiya, Manipulating Landscape, 2020

Isamu Noguchi with Kenzo Tange, Model for Memorial to the Dead, Hiroshima (unrealized), 1952. Photo: Isamu Noguchi. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 08834.3. ©INFGM / ARS
Basil Harb, Emerging, Rise, Descent, 2020

Based On: Isamu Noguchi with Kenzo Tange, Memorial to the Dead, Hiroshima, 1952

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Night Journey
  • Sculpture: Planet in Transit; Seen and Unseen; Ziggurat
  • Model: Play Sculpture
  • Playscape: Play Mountain
  • Urban Design: Sunken Garden for Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

“Noguchi’s memorial design looked to encapsulate the many emotions surrounding the tragic event that occurred only a short number of years before. He wanted to show the destructive power of atomic science and nuclear war, the pain and agony of loss, the solace of a final resting place, and the hope of rebirth.”5

Basil Harb, Emerging, Rise, Descent, 2020

Basil Harb, Emerging, Rise, Descent, 2020

Marked Earth: In response to the commission of a public memorial that would feature an underground cenotaph, Noguchi composed a scheme considering the permeability of the ground plane. His four-meter sculpture of black Brazilian granite emerges unassumingly, to light and clarity, with its influence etched into his constructed platform. At the other end of his composition, on another raised platform, the viewer is able to descend through the ground plane and discover the immense weight below the sculpture; the arch form is supported by two massive columns impacted beneath the ground. There is an imbalance of forces surrounding the ground plane, but what is implied is that the space above the ground affords the opportunity for new growth.

Emergent Platforms: A curated digital experience enables unique opportunities for viewership. From Teresa Stoppani’s words in Unorthodox Ways to Think the City, “The model can play with disembodied scales: inside and around models we can fly, crawl, defy gravity, and place ourselves in impossible positions.”6 Through this series of rendered movements around the modeled scheme, we can experience the way Noguchi intended the weight of his sculpture to be perceived and the forces at play transgressing the ground plane.

Breaking the Ground Plane: When observing both sides of this plane at once, the viewer can come to understand the dual nature of the public work: on one side, the descent of the viewer into the ground plane accesses a dark, heavy space for mourning within the earth; meanwhile, Noguchi’s sculpture rises from below the ground plane to an open, bright platform symbolic of new growth. In both conditions, Noguchi intends for the memory of the rest of the sculpture to remain within the viewer’s mind, balancing the powerful experiences at all times with an awareness of an ideological dependency on either side of the ground plane.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi, Model for Sculpture to be Seen From Mars (unrealized), 1947. Photo: Soichi Sunami. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 01646. ©INFGM / ARS
Bennet Adamson, Defying Gravity, 2020

Based on: Isamu Noguchi, Sculpture to be Seen From Mars, 1947

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Jungle Gym for Erick Hawkins’s Stephen Acrobat
  • Sculpture: Sky Gate
  • Model: My Arizona
  • Playscape: Reader’s Digest Building Garden
  • Urban Design: Sunken Garden for Chase Manhattan Bank Plaza

In 1947, following the nuclear atrocities of World War II, Noguchi proposed a monument to the frighteningly inevitable destruction of humankind. Originally titled Monument to Man, the work was a stoic and abstract representation of a human face, built up out of the earth and staring out into the cosmos. Noguchi designated the length of the nose at one mile long, rendering it large enough to be seen from space, and to act as a signifier to a distant future civilization of the people that once roamed the Earth. The only remaining documentation of the project exists in the form of a single photographed model. Built out of compacted sand, the texture gives viewers a sense that they are staring down onto the monument from far above, into the now desolate landscape of the Earth.

Bennet Sculpture To Be Seen From Mars Thumb

Bennet Adamson, Defying Gravity, 2020

From his familiarity with the constructed bases of Constantin Brancusi, Noguchi built a masterful understanding of how to play with the perceived weight of an object through its relative position to the body and its surroundings. For Noguchi, scale and weight are interconnected, and Sculpture to be Seen From Mars is meant to be read at two scales: in section, from the perspective of the minute human traversing its massive footprint, and in plan, from the viewpoint of the onlooker staring down from the cosmos. At the scale of the human, sharing the ground plane with the monument reveals just how small one is relative to it, so much so that it becomes impossible to see it in its entirety from any viewpoint. This extreme disproportion of scale creates an understanding of an intense mass pressing down on the Earth. It is only once one is able to look from afar that one can comprehend the monument in its entirety, which becomes clearer the farther away one strays from Earth. From afar, the monument becomes legible relative to the scale of the Earth, not the scale of the human. A small speck on the massive presence of the planet, gently perched on its surface.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi, Study for Monument to the Plow (unrealized), 1933. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 117-D. ©INFGM / ARS
Brandon Nolasco, Emergence, 2020

Based on: Isamu Noguchi, Monument to the Plow, 1933

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Alcestis
  • Sculpture: Untitled (CR# 481)
  • Model: Monument to the Plow
  • Playscape: Moerenuma Park
  • Urban Design: Garden of the Future, Headquarters of IBM Armonk

Sited in the middle of the Western Prairie, on land affected by the wheat crop curtailment program, Monument to the Plow is a triangular pyramid expanding 1,200 feet at each base edge. Made of earth, one side is soil, tilled in great furrows and radiating from one base corner; another side is planted wheat; and the third side is divided in half from the apex, part tilled soil with smaller furrows radiating from apex and part barren uncultivated earth. At the peak, a large block of concrete and a model of a huge steel plow sit, resembling an American flag blowing in the wind.

This Noguchi earthwork is dedicated to the reality of agricultural labor, land, and production at the beginning of the New Deal. In 1933, at the time of the monument’s conception, the New Deal aimed to respond to the needs of the Great Depression, enacting a series of programs, public works projects, and financial reforms and regulations to help bolster the economy and to address unemployment in America. Monument to the Plow attempts to evoke these complex social, economic, and environmental realities that marked those challenging times. With this sculpted landscape, Noguchi aimed to turn the viewer’s eye to the realities of everyday life in the 1930s, which included economic contraction, agricultural surplus, poor land use planning, drought, and attempts by the federal government to restabilize the economy’s significant agricultural sector. Noguchi’s vision for the project shows how he modeled his work on his own self-identification: “The steel plow, Dr. Rumley told me, had been devised through correspondence between Franklin and Jefferson, which had then made possible the opening up of the western plains. My model indicated my wish to belong to America, to its vast horizons of earth.”7 In Monument to the Plow, Noguchi centralizes vast horizons, emerging earth, and perspectival manipulation through his own lens of Americana.

Brandon Monument To The Plow

Brandon Nolasco, Emergence, 2020

Noguchi believed “that which emerges from the earth [are] objects in transit from one state to another.” While analysis of other works reveal “submerged” worlds from which his work “transitions,” the model for the plow studies the counterpart: Noguchi’s “emerged” realm. As this earthwork is all about the land, the first scene of my animation opens by locating and establishing the horizon. Then, the eye is introduced to and follows along the grain of the plowed, perspectival lines. These theoretically parallel lines soon converge to produce the apex of the monument, erecting the form from the earth upward. At the base of this new form, the pyramid transforms into a new horizon, via the perspectival manipulation of the plow lines. At each scene, the land is infinite, bound only by a horizon line. Guided by Noguchi’s intention, Emergence aims to spotlight the capacities of the American soil.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi, Model for Martha Graham Dance Theater, Los Angeles (unrealized), 1976. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 12329. ©INFGM / ARS
Bushra Aumir, Static Motion, 2020

Based on: Isamu Noguchi, Martha Graham Dance Theater, 1976

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Cave of the Heart
  • Sculpture: Portal
  • Model: R. Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion Car
  • Playscape: Kodomo No Kuni
  • Urban Design: Challenger Memorial

From early on, Noguchi was highly involved in working with theater sets and their connection to sculpture. He worked on Martha Graham’s sets, where he was able to play between the lines of sculpture and stage set design. For example, his set design for Martha Graham’s Frontier consisted of two pieces of rope that ran out from the stage, creating an infinite volume of space to perform around. Through his strong relationship with Martha Graham, he was able to work with an array of typologies between sculpture, theater, and garden. When Noguchi heard of possible interest from the University of California, Los Angeles in building a dance theater, it was enough of a reason for him to come up with the initial concept of the Martha Graham Dance Theater. Working alongside Buckminster Fuller, he designed a 100-by-100-square-foot lot. Noguchi saw the project as a tribute to both of his close friends, Graham and Fuller.

Ana Maria Torres quotes Noguchi in Isamu Noguchi: A Study of Space: “There is a joy in seeing a sculpture come to life on the stage in its own world of timeless time. Then the very air becomes charged with meaning and emotion, and form plays its integral part in the re-enactment of a ritual. Theater is a ceremony: the performance is a rite. Sculpture in daily life should or could be like this. In the meantime, the theater gives me a poetic, exalted equivalent.”8 Noguchi’s conceptual thinking is shown through this statement as he explains how the air becomes charged through form in space. Static Motion highlights the movement or presence of the human body when encountered by a sculpture, object, theater prop, or any piece of urban landscape. Unfortunately, the Martha Graham Dance Theater was the last project that Noguchi designed for Graham. Other than the Dymaxion Car, this was one of the only other major projects that Buckminster Fuller and Noguchi collaborated on.

Bushra Martha Graham Dance Theater

Bushra Aumir, Static Motion, 2020

The Fuller-inspired glass and metal dome sits on top of a base that Noguchi designed, an undulating form that engages the viewer. It divides itself vertically into two parts. One half is a darker, narrower area under the stage, which has space for performers to change costumes as well as some programmatic space for the audience to wait before their show and storage space for the various sets. The other part, the upper level, is wide open to the sky, bringing the outer universe inside to become part of the performances meant to take place there. The audience’s dynamic experience stems from the ground plane shifting toward the sky. It gives them an understanding of the wider universe they inhabit as they step into the geodesic dome under the starry sky.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi with Yozo Shibata, Katzumi Komuro, and Jiro Kodera, Architectural drawings of Memorial to Buddha, New Delhi, India (unrealized), 1957. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 01829 and 01830. ©INFGM / ARS
Christine Gao, Containment and Infinity, 2020

Based on: Isamu Noguchi with Yozo Shibata, Katzumi Komuro, and Jiro Kodera, Memorial to Buddha, 1957

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Appalachian Spring
  • Sculpture: Fish Face
  • Model: Memorial for Buddha
  • Playscape: United Nations Playground
  • Urban Design: California Scenario

Memorial to Buddha is a competition entry for a commemorative monument celebrating the 2,500th anniversary of Buddhism, which was to be built in New Delhi in the 1950s. Noguchi intended to mark the “Buddha’s holy birth, rather than that of a religion.”9 The design was inspired by the lotus flower, a Buddist symbol of divinity, purity, and detachment from earthly concerns. Radiating out from the main monument on the ground are six horizontal earth-formed leaves. They frame the erect center of the lotus blossom and subsequently mark the entry to the monument’s core. The main structure is a dome-like space composed of three separate spheroid sections, quasi-cantilevered in structure and reminiscent of the folded petals of a lotus blossom. The dome has four breakage points, or voids that let in light: three on the sides that form parabolic arch gates, between the vertical petals, and one on top that opens up to the sky. At the center of the monument is a 76-foot-tall column, as if the plant’s root is extending beyond the shell of the blossom and leading the gaze up to heaven.

Christine Memorial To Buddha

Christine Gao, Containment and Infinity, 2020

My curated digital model reiterates how Noguchi used models to shape physical experience. The procession throughout the space oscillates between containment and infinity. As one approaches at a considerable distance from afar, the vertical expansion is prominent as the soaring column breaks through the dome. Moving closer, one steps onto the six horizontal petals, raised three feet above the ground plane. The shadows cast by the sun animate the surface of the platform and prompt the body to follow the shadowsnavigating from petal to petal, until the long shadow of the column draws the body in through different gates depending on the time of day. Inside the lotus, the field is well defined by the pristine white shell of petals, which seems to encapsulate and incubate everything within. One sits in the meditative space and witnesses time, as the shadow of the column acts as a sundial, tracing the trajectory of the sun. The ever-changing interior shadows also play on the degree of containment. The afternoon’s larger shaded area induces more a sense of containment compared to midday. One circumambulates the column, the gaze follows, moving upward to find the endless column penetrating the sky. In contrast to the six exterior petals, which ripple out from the center, expanding the field laterally, the brass column pushes the boundaries of the field vertically. In addition to the strong verticality, the rhythmic and undulating geometry of the lobed column implies an infinite growth. The compression and release of views further reinforce the contrast between containment and infinity.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi with Gordon Bunshaft, Model for Project(s) for Lever Brothers Building, New York (unrealized), 1952. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 152060. ©INFGM / ARS
Daniel Min, Intimacy and Inhabitation, 2020

Based On: Isamu Noguchi with Gordon Bunshaft, Project(s) for Lever Brothers Building, New York, 1952

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Seraphic Dialogue; Merce Cunningham’s The Seasons
  • Sculpture: Kouros
  • Model: Model for Heaven (Tengoku)
  • Playscape: Riverside Playground
  • Urban Design: Courtyard for Lever Brothers Building

The plaza at Lever House was the result of the collaborative efforts of the sculptor Isamu Noguchi and the architect Gordon Bunshaft. The plaza was built on the bottom floor of Lever House, “the city’s first glass and steel office tower, boldly expressing a modern style that would define an era. One of Noguchi’s many architectural collaborations, the project unfortunately met with financial issues, which prevented the final scheme from becoming a reality. Noguchi was commissioned by Bunshaft in 1951, as Bunshaft appreciated Noguchi’s sculptural style.

The initial scheme for the plaza imagined an “oasis of art at the heart of the city,” heavily inspired by the white sand gardens of Tokyo. The garden would be a “pristine marble stage, from which sculptures would rise,” the sculptures conceptually derived from three abstract figures representing a father, mother, and child around the marble podium. As the scheme evolved, Noguchi became more interested in the space created by these three sculptures, which would present tension within the marble landscape. He states, “my concept was to eliminate the bed of green in the central marble planting box which had already been determined and to cover it with marble from which would rise sculptures with small risings and apertures in the marble for planting.”10

Daniel Project(s) For Lever Brothers Building

Daniel Min, Intimacy and Inhabitation, 2020

The curated model experience highlights an analysis of the triangulation created between the three sculptures as they are positioned as figures in a field. By carefully placing the three sculptures within an architectural scale, Noguchi creates a space within another space. My animation allows users to explore both types of space: the “marble stage” and the “sculptural space.” Potential to inhabit these various spaces creates an intriguing visual experience for visitors, who are able to experience Noguchi’s brilliance at both an architectural and sculptural scale.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi, Model for Sacred Rocks of Kukaniloko, Oahu, HI (unrealized), 1976. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 12331. ©INFGM / ARS
Erin Huang, Contoured Momentum, 2020

Based On: Isamu Noguchi, Sacred Rocks of Kukaniloko, 1976

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Merce Cunningham’s The Seasons
  • Sculpture: Garden Elements; Black Sun
  • Model: Ceiling for Magic Chef Building
  • Playscape: Piedmont Park
  • Urban Design: Landscape of Time

Isamu Noguchi’s forms and siting of sculpture often suggest a specific way of reading the motion of the work, static though it might be. Objects seem as if they have slipped slightly below ground, or are merely peeking above the surface. Sculptures don’t simply end when the object stops—there is an implied momentum and contour, a movement to the work. This “contoured momentum” is a visual motif in and of itself: forms are oblong, stretched out, as if they’re passing through states. Noguchi himself speaks of sculptures and stone as bone-like, belonging to the earth. Speaking of the sculpture Emergent (1971), he describes the work as “that which emerges from the earth. Objects in transit from one state to another.” These collected works give the feeling that they are merely passing by, or simply that they are in motion.

Noguchi’s set designs for Merce Cunningham’s The Seasons (1947) bring to life this idea of “contoured momentum,” most clearly influencing the approach for curating a digital experience of Sacred Rocks of Kukaniloko. Dancers wearing zebra costumes engage with the set design as if they themselves are mounds moving out of the earth, the movements and limbs connecting one action to the next. Read as a whole, the dancers become the earth, animating the ground plane, rising and falling.

Other pieces like The Ring (1948) clearly show the inward-outward appendages of this sculpture, connecting and disconnecting from the ground plane. In the Ceiling for Magic Chef Building (1948), Noguchi sets a datum that he then engages forms around, with lumps, bumps, and mounds emerging out of a hollowed-out ceiling. The roof itself is held up by a column that seemingly drips out of the rest of the ceiling, coming to rest and supporting the sculpted situation above.

Erin Sacred Rocks Of Kukaniloko

Erin Huang, Contoured Momentum, 2020

Perhaps it is fitting, then, to study Noguchi’s unbuilt work and model for the Sacred Rocks of Kukaniloko in Oahu, Hawaii, in the same regard. His proposal was for a large ring-shaped mound to surround the site of the Sacred Rocks of Kukaniloko, considered to be one of the most sacred sites in Hawaii. The mound rises up to protect the stones from its exterior surroundings, shielding it and those inside from external stimuli. It is markedly a womb-like space that cradles and protects its interior. Seen through the lens of “contoured momentum,” one begins to see the site as taking on a life of its own, rising up and enveloping its center. Similarly, the rocks themselves offer a reading as emerging out of the ground, as if unearthed and resting on the surface. Noguchi engages this state of movement and contours through different scales, invoking the mountains of the background that echo the much smaller stones in the foreground. The mountain, mound, and stones engage in conversation as the viewer moves around the stones, with the mound choreographing a visual sequence of the background, at times obscuring the horizon and others revealing it. The significance of this visual play is within the horizon: it is a uniquely landscape trait. Compared to the gallery’s white cube, detached from any context, the landscaped work is of the earth, deeply connected to its surroundings.

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Isamu Noguchi with Julian Whittlesey, Model for United Nations Playground, New York (unrealized), 1952. The Noguchi Museum Archives, 405A. ©INFGM / ARS
Panuwich Wongpaitoonpiya, Manipulating Landscape, 2020

Based On: Isamu Noguchi with Julian Whittlesey, United Nations Playground, 1952

Noguchi Works Assigned for Analysis:

  • Set Design: Martha Graham’s Herodiade
  • Sculpture: Erosion
  • Model: Swimming Pool for Josef von Sternberg
  • Playscape: Riverside Playground
  • Urban Design: UNESCO Garden

The United Nations Playground was a proposal for a playground located south of the United Nations Headquarters. It is a culmination of ideas explored in Noguchi’s previous designs, including Contoured Playground and Play Mountain, for a “new kind of playground that would contain no swing sets, sandboxes, or seesaws”11 but instead encompass a “sweeping, tiered pyramid for undirected play where the imagination could run wild.” The playground was unique among Noguchi’s earlier attempts in that “the ground itself provided shapes and areas for play, more specific to function this time than in Contoured Playground,12 especially in how the natural landform is aggregated and manipulated to form ridges and steps encouraging jumping and climbing. The action of carving is present in many of Noguchi’s earlier works, including Swimming Pool for Josef von Sternberg and Riverside Playground where Noguchi created different edge conditions to form the boundary of a space by creating upright walls, and then blended the void with the landscape with the addition of artificial landscape features that act as equipment of their own.

Panuwich United Nations Playground2

Panuwich Wongpaitoonpiya, Manipulating Landscape, 2020

The experience of interacting with the mounds in the United Nations Playground is unique as one’s actions are guided by the way the mounds are aggregated. Since there are three main mounds to interact with, the experience of being on top of one mound is always oriented toward the two other mounds and how they frame each other. The first mound is aggregated through a modular triangular grid where the panels are lowered and raised to form climbing steps, initiating a zigzag motion as one navigates around them. The second mound is divided into strips and when approached perpendicularly, the ridges can be climbed upon, while when experienced in parallel, they can be used as slides. The third mound consists of a depression that is carved into a spiral, inviting a circular, downward motion with a tall wall that blocks views outside of the playground. Overall, the playground project “expanded previous notions of built-in earth modulations and suggested new forms of equipment,” and succeeded in the objectives of the United Nations: to create “a playground that could foster imagination through beauty and good design.”13

Research Report PDFFinal Project Report PDF

Naomi Frangos is an architect, artist, and educator. A Visiting Associate Professor at Cornell University, she authored and instructed this seminar, Curating Model Behavior, in the Department of Architecture.

Produced by Alex Miller.

Transcripts of archival materials are available by request to

Sam Hunter, “Isamu Noguchi: ‘I Know Nothing About Anything, and That’s Why I’m so Free.’” ARTnews 77 (May 1978): 124-128.

Isamu Noguchi, Isamu Noguchi: A Sculptor’s World, 2nd ed., (Göttingen, Germany: Steidl, 2015), 159.

3 Ibid.,160.

4 Ibid.,159.

5 Ran Zwigenberg, (2015) The most modern city in the world: Isamu Noguchi’s cenotaph controversy and Hiroshima’s city of peace, Critical Military Studies, 1:2, 102-115

6 Teresa Stoppani, Unorthodox Ways to Think the City: Representations, Constructions, Dynamics (New York: Routledge, 2018), 108.

7 Noguchi, A Sculptor’s World.

8 Ana Maria Torres, Isamu Noguchi: A Study of Space (New York: The Monacelli Press, 2000), 281.

9 Isamu Noguchi, “Project for the Monument of Buddha.” Arts and Architecture 74, no. 9 (September 1957): 16.

10 Noguchi, A Sculptor’s World, 164.

11 Jon Earle, “005. Pedagogy: Better Playground, Better People? Isamu Noguchi’s Never-Built New York Playscapes,” Kinder, 2016,

12 Shaina D. Larrivee, “Playscapes: Isamu Noguchi’s Designs for Play,” Public Art Dialogue 1, no.1: 53–80.

13 Ibid.


Curating Model Behavior has been made possible through major support from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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